Type In The Box Below To Find Any Agricultural Topics And Guides.

Quantitative Feed Restriction On Broiler Chickens; Effect On The Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics

The Research on; Quantitative Feed Restriction On Broiler Chickens; Effect On The Growth Performance And Carcass Characteristics was carried out by NWABUZOR CHUKWUEMEKA.


Name of project Topic researcher: NWABUZOR CHUKWUEMEKA
Email Address: agriculturediary@gmail.com
Phone Number: (+234) 08032934651, (+234) 08054094792
Research location: Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Nigeria
Call and email me for full copy of the work.



A total of 96 day old obamashal broiler chicks were used in a 56 day study to determine the effect of quantitative feed restriction on the growth rate and carcass traits of broiler chickens. The birds were allocated to four treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4) and three replicates at 8 birds per replicate. Birds in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were restricted from feeding for 4hours, 6hours and 8hours respectively daily. T1 served as the control and were fed ad libitum. Parameters evaluated include; weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and carcass traits of the broiler chickens. Results obtained from the broiler chickens show no significant difference (p>0.05) in carcass traits except on the gizzard, liver and proventiculus which differ significantly at p<0.01. There were also no significant difference(p>0.05) in the weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio among the experimental treatments. Results of the experiment indicated that feed restriction at these duration has no adverse effect on the performance of the birds.


Intensive selection for high growth rate has provided the broiler industry with flocks that reach target weight for slaughter in shorter time periods. However, some undesirable selection responses correlated with rapid growth have occurred (Benyi et al., 2010). Fast growth rate has been associated with greater susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as ascites and sudden death syndrome, and a high incidence of skeletal problems (Yu and Robinson, 1992; Garner et al., 2002; Scott, 2002). Broiler chicken are given free choice feeding, therefore, they tend to consume energy in excess of their maintenance and production requirements and deposit this excess as fat (Summers and Spratt, 2000; Cuddington, 2004). Fat is an uneconomical and undesirable product that not only increases the occurrence of metabolic diseases and skeletal deformities, but also causes problems in feed efficiency, difficulties in meat processing, and rejection of meat by consumers for health reasons (Urdenta-Rincon and Leeson, 2002). Consumer preferences for leaner meat have increased over the last two decades due to the corollary between human consumption of certain fats and cardiovascular disease. This has stimulated interest in reducing abdominal-fat deposition in broiler chickens and trend towards leaner carcasses (Cabel and Waldroup, 1990). It also sparked the interest in research on feed restriction and the concept of compensatory growth to correct metabolic problems and meet consumer demands for leaner carcasses (Zubair and Leeson, 1994).

Feed restriction, whether qualitative or quantitative, is denying birds a full access to nutrients that are required for their normal growth and development (Khetaniet al.,2009). Early feed restriction is practiced in broilers to induce compensatory growth, improve efficiency of feed utilization, and lower maintenance requirements in thegrower and finisher phases (Teimouriet al., 2005). This will ultimately lead to reduction in feed and production costs, thereby, producing a lean quality meat at cheaperprices (Zubair and Leeson, 1996; Navidshadet al., 2006; Mahmud et al., 2008).Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the effect of quantitative on growth performance, carcass traits and organ size atthe end of the growing period.

The dramatic improvements in growth rate, feed efficiency and meat yield of broiler chickens over the last few decades are primarily the result of genetic selection and improved nutrition (Zubair and Leeson, 1996). Unfortunately, along with these improvements have come unintended detrimental correlated responses. Examples of such include;increase in appetite and excessive feed intake, if broiler chickens are given free access to feed (Richards et al., 2003). The energy intake in excess of the requirements for maintenance and production is converted into fat (Summers et al., 1990), an uneconomical and undesirable product which not only causes increase in thefrequency of metabolic diseases in growing birds, but also reduces carcass yield and feed efficiency, cause difficulties in processing (Garner et al., 2002; Scott, 2002) andhas an adverse effect on human health. Several quantitative and qualitative restricted-feeding programmes have therefore been employed in attempts to restrict feed intake of broilers in order to reduce feeding cost and fat deposition, improve feed efficiency,lessen the frequency of occurrence of metabolic diseases in the birds and reduce the unfavourable effects of fat on human health (Tolkampet al., 2005; Zhan et al., 2007).

Feed restriction has been reported to reduce early growth, fat deposition and mortality rate and reduce the frequency of occurrence of these health problems (Navidshadet al., 2006; Mahmud et al., 2008). Recent reports on feed restriction have been conflicting and have depended on factors such as the severity, timing and duration of restriction (Navidshadet al., 2006; Khajalietal., 2007). Benyi and Habi (1998) reported that reducing feeding time by 2 days a week reduced growth rate and final body weight but resulted in similar feed efficiency as in those fed ad libitum, those whose feed intake was quantitatively reduced by 15%, but better than those whose feed was reduced by 30%. Reports on the effects of skip-a-day feed removal on broiler performance have generally indicated a reduced feed intake, weight gain and lower market weight but contradict one another on effects on feed efficiency, mortality rate and abdominal fat deposition (Navidshadetal., 2006; Khajaliet al. 2007; Benyiet al., 2011; Ghazanfariet al., 2010).


3.1 Experimental Site

The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Department of Animal Science, CAS campus, Ebonyi State University, Abakailiki, Ebonyi State, which lies within the latitude 7°30E and 8°30E and longitude 5°40N and 6°45N, (Nwakpu, 2008).

3.2 Experimental Diet:

The birds were fed with a commercial feed (Top feed) which contain the necessary nutrient requirements to the benefit of the birds approved by National Research Council (1994).

3.3 Experimental Animal and Management

The experiment was conducted using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the birds were allocated to four treatments and replicated three times. The T1 was the control and was fed ad libitum. T2 was restricted from feeding for 4 hours in 24 hours, T3 was also restricted for 6 hours, while T4 was 8 hours. The experiment lasted for 56 days (8 weeks). Only water was provided ad libitum. Proper routine poultry management was maintained.

3.4 Parameter Measured

The following parameters were measured in the experiment-

  • Feed Intake: known quantity of feed were weighed out and offered to the birds daily and the left over were weighed and recorded. The feed intake was determined by obtaining the difference between the quantity of feed offered and the left over in the following morning
  • Body Weight Gain: Birds in each replicate per treatment groups were weighed at the beginning of the experiment to obtain their initial body weight and subsequently weighed on weekly basis. The body weight gain was obtained by subtracting the initial body weight from the final body weight. The daily weight gain was determined by dividing the total body weight gain by the number of the days the experiment lasted.

Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR): This was computed by dividing the daily feed intake by daily weight gain.


FCR = feed intake (g)

           Body weight gain (g)


Carcass characteristics

At the end of the feeding trial, three birds were selected from each treatment for carcass and organ weight evaluation. The birds were starved for 12hours,weighed, slaughtered and dressed. Dressed weight, cut-off parts and organs weight were recorded. The weights of the cut-off parts and the organs were expressed as a percentage of the dressed weight.

3.5  STATISTICAL MODEL                  

Data analysis: Data collected were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) according to Okporie (2006). Significant means were separated using Fishers Least Significant Difference (F-LSD) as outlined by Obi (2002).

Xij= µ + Ti + Σij


Xij = Any Observation

µ = Population Mean

Ti = Treatment Effect

Σij = Experimental Error

i = Number of Treatment

j = Number of Replication



The results of the effect of quantitative feed restriction on the growth rate of broiler birds presented in table 1 shows no significant differences (p>0.05) on the initial body weight, final body weight, daily feed intake, total feed intake,daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio.


Table 1: Performance of broiler birds exposed to quantitative feed restriction.


Parameters                       T1         T2            T3            T4        SEM

Initial body weight            113.92     116.38    117.54        116.04       5.49

Final body weight gain     1981.56   2022.19   2098.49   1931.05   98.36

Daily feed intake                  89.86     90.21     83.75          106.24      7.66

Total feed intake                  4942        4961     4606         5843           1501.6

Daily body weight gain       35.96      33.31      36.02       33.00          1.80

Feed conversion ratio         2.66       2.72            2.49           3.21       0.20


This was due to the rapid catch up growth rate of the birds in treatments two, three and four during the period of realimentation.

The results of the effect of quantitative feed restriction on broiler birds are presented in table 2 show no significant differences (p>0.05) in the breast weight, neck, thigh, spleen, drumstick, shank and back-cut. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the liver weight, gizzard and proventiculus.


Table 2: carcass traits of broiler birds exposed to quantitative feed restriction

PARAMETERS                               T1            T2        T3       T4          SEM 

BACK                                                     16.01     16.29     16.98     16.89     0.51

BREAST                                               19.58     19.57     19.14     21.88        1.12

SPLEEN                                               0.07        0.05       0.06       0.05      0.01

HEART                                                0.47         0.45       0.32       0.36      0.06

WING                                                  8.99          8.80       9.95       8.66     0.15

ABDOMINAL FAT                           3.08         3.55       2.29         2.10     0.50

GIZZARD                                            1.29a        1.22ab    0.92b          1.07a     0.05

SHANK                                               4.82          3.75        3.85        3.31     0.34

DRUM STICK                                   11.3            11.17       11.85      11.01    0.43

THIGH                                               13.58         11.63       12.67     12.03    0.65

NECK                                                  7.34            8.72         7.41       8.14     0.53

HEAD                                                  2.76            2.73         2.76       2.32     0.09

LIVER                                                2.63             2.31          2.13       2.93       0.17

PROVENTICULUS                         0.35a             0.38a           0.47b       0.51c     0.03

a,b and c means on the same row with different superscripts are significantly difference (p<0.05)


5.1       Growth rate

The results in this study, show no significant differences (P>0.05) in the initial body weight, total feed intake and daily body weight gain. This was in agreement with the results of Ballay et al., (1992) who observed no significant difference in those parameters. Zubair and Leeson (1994), Palo et al., (1995); Camacho et al.,(2004) recorded that there were no difference in the final body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the restricted birds, when compared to that of the control group. Also, the feed intake of the restricted birds (T4) was higher than that of the ad-libitum fed broilers (T1). It has been known that feed restricted birds consumed more feed in their attempt to compensate for the time they would have been deprived of feed. This was in agreement with the results of Khetani et al., 2009, who observed increased total feed intake by feed restricted birds when compared to the control group.

5.2       Carcass traits

The weight of abdominal fat pad of restricted broilers was lower than that of ad libitum broilers, but not statistically significant. There is also a decreased trend in fat deposition, in agreement with Jones and Farrell, 1992; Nielsen et al., 2003, whereas others cited opposite results (Lippens et al., 2000; Salehet al., 2005; Zhan et al., 2007; Onbasilar et al., 2009; Lanhui et al., 2011).

The discrepancies may be due to the metabolic programming, whereby, malnutrition leads to adult life obesity. The metabolic programming is induced by nutritional experience during the critical period in development with consequences during adulthood (Platel and Srinivasan, 2002). The fact that there was no significant reduction in abdominal fat deposition in T2, T3 and T4 birds in this experiment suggests that even feed-restricted-broilers are still overeating and that level of feed intake may control de novo lipogenesis (Rosebrough and McMurty, 1993).

The breast weight, neck, thigh, spleen, drumstick, shank and back-cut, did not differ statistically among the treatments. This was in agreement with the results of Salehetal..,2005 and Onbasilaret al..,2009, who found differences among them.

There were significant differences (p<0.01) in the liver weight, gizzard and proventiculus. This was in agreement with Salehet al..,2005. The proventiculus increases gradually as the duration of restriction increases.

The heart weight also shows no significant difference when compared to the control group. The result contradicts with that of McGovern et al.,(1999), who concluded that heart weight was significantly higher in feed restricted broilers.

These contrasts in results may be attributed to the feed restriction programmes applied and slaughtering age of birds.

Also in this study, the important disease common to birds, fed ad libitum (ascites), which the body cavity accumulates serous fluids, leading to carcass condemnation or death; a consequence of cardio-pulmunary insufficiency in rapidly growing broiler chickens, was reduced to minimum among the feed restricted birds (T3 and T2), but were rampant among the unrestricted birds (T1). This was in agreement with the findings of Julian et al..,2000.

The T1 group developed leg disorders which resulted to lameness (inability to walk). This was in agreement with Balog, 2003.

Also, mortality amongst the feed restricted groups was drastically reduced but was high in T1 due to rapid growth rate in modern broiler chickens. This was in agreement with Bowes et al..,1998 and George, 2007. But in most experiments, no significant difference was observed between the control and restricted groups (Scheideler and Baughman, 1993;Deaton, 1995).



The results of this experiment showed that feed restriction in broiler production helps to provide a quality meat in poultry industry by reducing the abdominal fat pad, thereby making it safer for consumption.

There was also no adverse effect on the carcass composition, therefore farmers can apply the feed restriction programme in order to provide a better without much stress to the birds.




  • Altan O, Ozkan S, Yakin S (1998). Restricted growth of broilers: effect of different restricted feeding program on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. Turkish Journal Veterinary.Animal Science. 22:231-326.
  • Apeldoorn, E.J., J.W. Scharama, M.M. Machaly and H.K. Parmentier, 1999.Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 78: 223-229.
  • Acar, N., F.G. Sizemore, G.R. Leach, R.F. Wideman, R.L. Owen and G.F. Barbato, 1995.Growth of broiler chickens in response to feed restriction regimens to reduce ascites. Poultry Science, 74: 833-843.
  • Arce, J., M. Berger and C.L. Coello, 1992. Control of 64: 348-355. ascites syndrome by feed restriction techniques. Journal Applied Poultry Research, 1: 1-5.
  • Baghbanzadeh, A. and E. Decuypere, 2008. Ascites syndrome in broilers: Physiological and nutritional perspectives. Avian Pathology, 37: 117-126.
  • Ballay, M., E.A. Dunnington, B.W. Gross and P.B. Siegel, 1992. Restricted feeding and broiler performance: age at initiation and length of restriction. Poultry Science, 71: 440-447.
  • Benyi K, Habi H (1998). Effects of food restriction during the finishing period on the performance of broiler chickens.British Poultry Science.39:423-425.
  • Bhat, G.A. and M.T. Banday, 2000.Effect of feed restriction on the performance of broiler chickens during the winter season. Indian Journal Poultry Science,35: 112-114.
  • Benyi K, Acheampong-Boateng O, Norris D (2011). Effects of strain and different skip-a-day feed restriction periods on growth performance of broiler chickens. Tropical Animal Health Production. 42:1421-1426.
  • Benschop, D., 2000. Compensatory growth in ruminants-an overview.Proceedings of the 2000Course in Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism ANSC 6260. University of Gulph, Ontario, pp: 1-16.
  • Buyse, J., E. Decuypere and H. Michels, 1994. Intermitten lighting and broiler production.Effect on female broiler performance. Archive fur Geflugelkunde, 58: 69-74.
  • Buyse, J., R. Kuhn and E. Decuypere, 1996. The use of intermittent lighting in broiler raising. 1. Effect on broiler performance and efficiency of nitrogen retention. Poultry Science.,75: 589-594.
  • Balog, J.M., 2003. Ascites syndrome (pulmonary hypertension syndrome) in broiler chickens: are we seeing the light at the end of the tunnel? Avian Poultry. Biology Review, 14: 99-126.
  • Bowes,V.A., R.J. Julian, L.S. Julian, L. Stirtzinger and T. Stirtzinger, 1988. Effect of feed restriction on feed efficiency and incidence of sudden death syndrome in broiler chickens. Poultry Science., 67(7): 1102-1104.
  • Buys, N., J. Buyse, M. Hassanzadeh-Ladmakh.and E. Decuypere, 1998. Intermittent lighting reduces the incidence of ascites in broilers: an interaction with protein content of feed on performance and the endocrine system. Poultry Science., 77: 54-61.
  • Cabel, M.C. and P.W. Waldroup, 1990. Effect of different nutrient-restriction programs early in life on broiler performance and abdominal fat content. Poultry Science., 69: 652-660.
  • Classen, H.L. and C. Riddell, 1990.Early growth rate and lighting effects on broiler skeletal disease. Poultry Science., 69(Suppl. 1): 35. (Abstract.)
  • Classen H.L., C. Riddell and F.E. Robinson, 1991. Effects of increasing photoperiod length on performance and health of broiler chickens. Br. Poultry Science., 32: 21-29.
  • Calet, C., 1965. The relative value of pellets versus mash and grain in poultry nutrition.World Poultry Science Journal., 21: 23-52.
  • Coon, C.N., W.A. Becker and J.V. Spencer, 1981. The effect of feeding high energy diets containing supplemental fat on broiler weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass composition. Poultry Science., 60: 1264-1271.
  • Cherry, J.A., P.B. Siegel and W.L. Beane, 1978.Genetic-nutritional relationships in growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Poultry Science.,pp: 571482-1487.
  • Chambers JR (1990). Genetics of growth and meat production. In:Crawford RD (ed) Poultry breeding and Genetics. Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam. pp. 611-619.
  • Dozier WA, Lien RJ, Hess JB, Bilgili SF, Gordon RW, Laster CF, VieiraSL (2002). Effects of early skip-a-day feed removal on broiler live performance and carcass yield. Journal of Applied Poultry Research; 11:297-303.
  • Dozier WA, Lien RJ, Hess JB, Biljill SF (2003). Influence of early skip-a-day feed removal on live performance and carcass yield of broilers of different sexes and strain sources. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 12:439-448.
  • Deaton, J.W., 1995. The effect of early feed restriction on broiler performance. Poultry Science.,74: 1280-1286.
  • Edwards, H.M. and Jr. P. Sorensen, 1987.Effect of short fasts on the development of tibial dyschondroplasia in chickens.Journal of Nutrition., 117: 194-200.
  • Fancher, B.I. and L.S. Jensen, 1988.Induction of voluntary feed intake restriction in broiler chicks by dietary glycolic acid supplementation. Poultry Science.,67: 1469-1482.
  • Fattori, T.R., H.R. Wilson, R.H. Harms and R.D. Miles, 1991. Response of broiler breeder females to feed restriction below recommended levels. 1. Growth and reproductive performance. Poultry Science.,70: 26-36.
  • Fontana EA, Weaver Jr. WD, Denbow DM, Watkins BA (1993). Earlyfeed restriction of broilers: effects on abdominal fat pad, liver and gizzard weights, fat deposition and carcass composition. Poultry Science.72:1296-1305.
  • Fanooci, M. and M. Torki, 2010. Effects of Qualitative Dietary Restriction on Performance, Carcass Characteristics,White Blood Cell Count and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chicks Global Veterinaria, 4(3): 277-282.
  • Garner JP, Falcone C, Wakenell P, Martin M, Mench JA (2002). Reliability and validity of a modified gait scoring system and its use in assessing tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers.British Poultry Science. 43:355-363.
  • George, Q., 2007. Reduction of Early Mortality in Broiler Chickens through Nutrition and Management:Champion Feed service limited: www.championfeeds.com, pp: 1-2.
  • Ghazanfari S, Kermanshahi H, Nassiry MR, Golian A, Moussavi ARH,Salehi A (2010). Effects of feed restriction and different energy and protein levels of the diet on growth performance and growth hormone in broiler chickens.Journal of Biology Science. 10:25-30.
  • Griffiths, L., S. Leeson and J.D. Summers, 1977. Fat deposition in broilers: Effect of dietary energy toprotein balance and early life caloric restriction on productive performance and abdominal fat pad size.Poultry Science., 56: 638-646.
  • Houshmand M, Kamyab A, Yousefi K, Farshi AT (2003). The performance of broiler chickens during and following different feed restriction methods at an early age. Poultry Science. 80(Suppl. 1):402.
  • Hassanzadeh, M., 2009.New approach for the incidence of ascites syndrome in broiler chickens and management control of the metabolic disorders.International Journal Poultry Science., 8: 90-98.
  • Jones, G.P.D. and D.J. Farrell, 1992.Early life food restriction of the chicken. I. Methods of application, amino acid supplementation and the age at which restriction should commence. British Poultry Science., 33: 579-587.
  • Jones, F.T., K.E. Anderson and P.R. Ferket, 1995.Effect of extrusion on feed characteristics and broiler chicken performance.Journal of Applied Poultry Research., 4: 300-309.
  • Julian, R.J., 2000. Physiological management and environmental triggers of the ascites syndrome. Avian Pathology., 29: 519-527.
  • Khajali F, Zamani-Mghaddam QA, Ashadi-Khoshoe E (2007).Application of early skip-a-day feed restriction on physiologicalparameters, carcass traits and development of ascites in malebroilers raised under regular and low temperatures at high altitude.Animal Science Journal. 78:159-163.
  • Kuhlers, D.L. and G.R. McDaniel, 1996. Estimates of heritabilities and genetic correlations between tibial dyschondroplasia expression and body weight at two ages in broilers. Poultry Science., 75: 959-961.
  • Lilburn, M.S., T.J. Lauterio, K. Ngiam-Rilling and J.H. Smith, 1989. Relationships among mineral balance in the diet, early growth manipulation and incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia in different strains of meat type chickens, Poultry Science., 68: 1263-1273.
  • Lippens, M., G. Room, G. De Groote and E. Decuypere, 2000.Early and temporary quantitative food restriction of broiler chickens. 1. Effects on performance characteristics, mortality and meat quality. British Poultry Science., 41: 343-354.
  • Leeson, S. and K. Zubair, 1997.Nutrition of the broiler chicken around the period of compensatory growth. Poultry Science., 76: 992-999.
  • Leeson, S., L. Caston and J.D. Summers, 1996.Broiler response to energy or energy and protein dilution in the finisher diet. Poultry Science., 75: 522-528.
  • Lee, K.H. ad S. Lesson, 2001. Performance of broilers fed limited quantities of feed or nutrients during seven to fourteen days of age. Poultry Science., 80: 446-454.
  • Lewis, P.D. and T.R. Morris, 1998. Responses of domestic poultry to various light sources. Word’s Poultry Science Journal., 54: 72-75.
  • Mahmud A, Khattak FM, Ali Z, Pasha T (2008). Effect of early feed   restriction, on broiler performance, meal feeding on performance,carcass characteristics and blood constituents of broiler chickens.Journal of Animal Veterinary.Advanced. 8:2069-2074.
  • McMurtry, J.P., R.W. Rosebrough, I. Plavnik and A.I. Cartwright, 1988. Influence of early plane of nutrition on enzyme systems and subsequent tissue deposition. pp: 329-341. In: Biomechanisms Regulating Growth and Development (G. L. Steffens and T. S. Rumsey,ed). Betsville Symposia on Agricultural Research, Klumer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
  • Morris, T.R., 1986. Light requirement of the fowl.In: environmental control in poultry production. Carter, T.C. (Ed), Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyod, pp: 15-39.
  • National Research Council, 1994.Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9 Revised edition, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  • Navidshad B, Shivazad M, Zare A, Rahim G (2006). Effect of feed dietary restriction and fat saturation on performance and serum thyroid hormones in broiler chickens.International Journal of Poultry Science. 5:436-440.
  • Nir, I., Z. Nitsan, E.A. Dunnington and P.B. Siegel, 1996.Aspects of food intake in young domestic fowl: Metabolic and genetic considerations. World Poultry Science Journal., 52: 251-266.
  • Nir, I., R. Hillel, I. Ptichi and G. Shefet, 1995.Effect of particle size on performance. 3. Grinding pelleting interactions. Poultry Science., 74: 771-783.
  • Nielsen, B.L., M. Litherland and F. Nøddegaard, 2003.Effect of qualitative and quantitative feed restriction on the activity of broiler chickens. Applied AnimalBehaviourScience., 83: 309-323.
  • Novele, D.J., J.W. Ng’Ambi, D. Norris and C.A. Mbajiorgu 2009. Effect of different feed restriction regimes during the starter stage on productivity and carcass characteristics of male and female Ross 308 broiler chickens. International Journal Poultry Science., 8(1): 35-39.
  • Onbasilar, E.E., S. Yalcin, E. Torlak and P. Ozdemir, 2009. Effects of early feed restriction on live performance, carcass characteristics,meat and liver composition, some blood parameters, heterophile lymphocyte ratio, antibody production and tonic immobility duration.Tropical Animal Health and Production., 41: 1513-1519.
  • Olanrewaju, H.A., J.P. Thaxton, W.P. Dizier, J. Pursuel, W.B. Roush and S.L. Branton, 2006.A review of lighting programs for broiler production.International Journal of Poultry Science, 5(4): 301-308.
  • Ononiwu, J.C., R.G. Tbomson, H.C. Carlson and R.J. Julian, 1979.Studies on the effect of lighting on chickens in response to feed restriction regimens to “sudden death syndrome” in broiler chickens.Canadian Veterinary Journal.
  • Oyedeji JO, Atteh JO (2005). Response of broilers to feeding manipulations.International Journal Poultry Science. 4:91-95.
  • Oyedeji, J.O. and J.O. Atteh, 2005.Response of broilers to feeding manipulations.International Journal Poultry Science., 4(2): 91-95.
  • Oyedeji JO, Atteh JO (2003). Response of broilers to 3 weeks feed restriction initiated at different time periods. Nigerian Journal Animal Production. 30(2):157-162.
  • Oyawoye, E.O. and W.F. Krueger, 1990.Potential of chemical regulation of food intake and body weight of broiler breeder chick.British Poultry Science., 31: 735-742.
  • Pinchasov, Y. th and S. Elmaliah, 1994. Broiler chick responses to anorectic agents: 1.dietary acetic and propionic acids and the digestive system. Pharmacological and Biochemical Behavior. 48: 371-376.
  • Pinchasov, Y. and L.S. Jensen, 1989. Comparison of physiological and chemical means of feed restriction in broiler chicks. Poultry Science, 68: 61-69.
  • Plavnik I, Balnave D (1992). Response of different strains of Australian broiler chickens to feed restriction at an early age.Australian Journal Agricultural Research. 43:1253-1258.
  • Plavnik, I. and S. Hurwitz, 1985. The performance of broiler chicks during and following asevere feed restriction at an early age. Poultry Science, 64: 348-355.
  • Plavnik, I. and S. Hurwitz, 1989. Effect of dietary protein, energy and feed pelleting on the response of chicks to early feed restriction. Poultry Science, 68: 1118-1125.
  • Plavnik, I. and S. Hurwitz, 1988b. Early feed restriction in male turkeys: Growth pattern, feed efficiency and body composition. Poultry Science, 67: 1407-1413.
  • Pasternak, H. and B.A. Shalev, 1983. Genetic economic evaluations of traits in a broiler enterprise: reduction of food intake due to increased growth rate. British Poultry Science, pp: 24531-536.
  • Richards MP, Poch SM, Coon CN, Rosebrough RW, Ashwell CM,McMurty JP (2003). Feed restriction significantly alters LipogenicGene expression in broiler breeder chickens. Journal of Nutrition. 133(3):707-715.
  • Religious, K.B., S. Tesseraud and O.A. Piccady, 2001. Food neonatale and early development of table fowl. 2001, INRA.Production.Animal., 14: 219-230.
  • Rosebrough, R.W. and J.P. McMurtry, 1993.Energy repletion and lipid metabolism during compensatory gain in broiler chickens.Growth Development and Aging. 57: 73-83.
  • Reece, F.N., B.D. Lolt, J.W. Deaton and S.L Branbn, 1986.Meal feeding and broiler performance. Poultry Science, 65: 1497-1501.
  • Robinson, F. and H.L. Clessen, J.A. Hpnson and D.K. Onderkp, 1992. Growth performance, feed efficiency and the incidence of skeletal and metabolic disease in fa-fed and feed restricted broiler and roaster chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 1: 33-41.
  • Ryan, W.J., I.H. Williams and R.J. Moir, 1993.Compensatory growth in sheep and cattle.1.Growth pattern and feed intake. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 44: 1623-1633.
  • Safaloah ACL (1999). Effect of early and late feed restriction on compensatory ability of broilers.Uniswa Research Journal Agricultural Science Technology.3:69-73.
  • Saleh EA, Watkins SE, Waldroup AL, Waldroup PW (2004).Comparison of energy feeding programs and early feed restriction onlive performance and carcass quality of large broilers grown for further processing at 9 to 12 weeks of age.International Journal Poultry Science.3:61-69.
  • Santoso U, Tanaka K, Ohtani S (1995). Early skip-a-day feeding of female broiler chicks fed high-protein regimentation diets:Performance and body composition. Poultry Science. 74(3):494-501.
  • Savory, C.J., 1974. Growth and behavior of chickens fed on pellets or mash. British Poultry Science, 15: 281-286.
  • Savory, C.J., P.M. Hocking, J.S. Mann and H.M. Maxwell, 1996. Is broiler breeder welfare improved by using qualitative rather than quantitative food restriction to limit growth rate?Animal Welfare. 5: 105-127.
  • Scheideler, S.E. and G.R. Baughmam, 1993.Cumputarized early feed restriction programs for various strains of broilers. Poultry Science., 72: 236-242.
  • Scott TA. (2002). Evaluation of lighting programs, diet density and short-term use of mash as compared to crumbled starter to reduce incidence of sudden death syndrome in broiler chicks to 35 days of age. Canadian Journal Animal Science 82:375-383.
  • Sizemore, F.G. and H.S. Siegel, 1993. Growth, feed conversion and carcass composition in females of four broiler crosses fed starter diets with different energy levels and energy to protein ratios. Poultry Science., 72: 2216-2228.
  • Scott, T.A., 2002. Evaluation of lighting programs,diet density and short-term use of mash as compared to crumbled starter to reduce incidence of sudden death syndrome in broiler chicks to 35 days of age.Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 82: 375-383.
  • Sahraei, M. and F. Shariatmadari, 2007.Effect of different levels of diet dilution during finisher period on broiler chickens performance and carcass characteristics.International Journal Poultry Science, 6(4): 280-282.
  • Susbilla, P.J., T.L. Frankel, G. Parkinson and C.B. Gow, 1994.Weight of internal organs and carcass yield of early food restricted broilers. British Poultry Science, 35: 677-685.
  • Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1981). Principles and Procedures of Statistics, A Biometrical Approach. McGraw-Hill International, London. 633 pp.
  • Summers JD, Spratt D, Atkinson JL (1990). Restricted feeding and compensatory growth for broilers.Poultry Science. 69:1855-1861.
  • Tolkamp BJ, Sandilands V, Kyriazakit I (2005). The effect of early feed restriction during rearing on the performance of broiler breeders during rearing and lay.Poultry Science. 84:1286–1293.
  • Urdenata-Rincon M, Leeson S (2002). Quantitative and qualitative feed restriction on growth characteristics of male broiler chickens.Poultry Science. 81:769-788.
  • Washburn, K.W. and K. Bondari, 1978.Effects of timing and duration of restricted feeding on compensatory growth in broilers. Poultry Science, 5710: 3-1021.
  • Wilson, P.N. and D.F. Osbourn, 1960.Compensatory growth after under-nutrition in mammals and birds. Biology Review, 35: 325-3633.
  • Wilson, M., 2005. Production focus (In; Balancing genetics, welfare and economics in broiler production). 1(1): 1. Publication of Cobb-Vantress, Inc.
  • Wilson, L.J., Jr. W.D. Weaver, W.L. Beane and Cherry, 1984. Effects of light and feeding space on leg abnormalities in broilers. Poultry Science, 63: 565-567.
  • Yousefi K, Kamyab A, Houshmand M, Taghipour-Farshi A (2001). The effects of early skip-a-day feeding regimen on the performance of Ross male broiler chicken. Poultry Science, 80(Suppl.1):402.
  • Yu, M.E., F.E. Robinson, M.T. Clandini and L. Bodnar, 1990. Growth and body composition of broiler chickens in response to different regimes of feed restriction. Poultry Science, 69(12): 2074-2081.
  • Yu, M.E. and F.E. Robinson, 1992. The application of short-term feed restriction to broiler chicken production: A review. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 1: 147-153.
  • Zhan XA, Wang M, Ren H, Zhao RQ, Li JX, Tan ZL (2007). Effect ofearly feed restriction on metabolic programming and compensatory growth in broiler chickens.Poultry Science.86:645 -660.
  • Zubair AK, Leeson S (1996). Changes in body composition and adipocyte cellularity of male broilers subjected to varying degrees early-life feed restriction. Poultry Science. 75:719-728.
  • Zubair, A.K. and S. Leeson, 1996. Compensatory growth in the broiler chicken: a review. World’s Poultry Science, 52: 189-201.
  • Zubair, A.K. and S. Leeson, 1994.Effect of varying period of early nutrient restriction on growth compensation and carcass characteristics of male broilers. Poultry Science, 73: 129-136.
List of Top Biggest Farms in the World | Biggest Farm Ever

List of Top Biggest Farms in the World | Biggest Farm Ever

List of Top Biggest Farms in the World- Agricultural practices (rearing of animals and cultivation of crops) generally has been an occupation for as long as one could remember. It is one of the occupations which can never be redundant as it is the activity that...


  1. Alfred Piyo

    good day

    thanks for the information I really appreciate it and would like to pose further question in the quest to be a successful poultry farmer.

    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      Ok. Thanks for the complements


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Most Read Articles Today: