There are great difference difference between Water Turn-Over and Water Losses. This page has explain in details on Water Turn-Over and Water Losses.
Water turn-over is a term used to express the ratio at which body water is excreted and replaced in tissues. Non ruminant species have a more rapid turn-over because they have less water in the G.I.T (Gastro-intestinal tract). Those animals that can tolerate greater water restriction e.g camel have lower turn-over than horses and cattle that are less tolerant to water restriction. Water turn-over is affected by: climatic factors e.g temperatures and humidity .
By ingestion of common salt that increases urinary faecal excretion.
Water is lost by evaporation via the skin, periodic excretion in urine and faeces. Water excreted in urine act as a solvent for excretory product excreted via the kidneys. Urine concentration is related to the type of compound excreted (uric acid, urea and minerals.) for example, poultry excrete uric acid rather than urea as an end products of protein metabolism. Poultry excrete urine in semi-solid form with only small amount of water.
This gives birds a slight advantage of production of more metabolic water than does urea.
Note: Urea is concentrated aqueous solution which could be toxic to tissue. In urine, the urea is diluted by water to harmless concentration and finally excreted. Faecal water loss are considerably higher in ruminants than in other species, been about the same volume to urinary losses. Cattle that consumes fibre diet excrete faeces of 68 – 80% water. Sheep faeces which form pellets contains 50 – 70% water.
Animals are more sensitive to lack of water than food. The first noticeable effect of moderate restriction of water is a reduced intake in feed. Severe restriction of water intake will result in rapid weight loss and body dehydrates. Water consumption is related to heat production. Other factors affecting water intake include:
- Dietary Factor: Dry matter intake is highly correlated with water intake at moderate temperature water content of feed consumed also affect total feed intake. High level of protein intake of fats may also increase intake of fats may also increase water intake.
Consumption of common salt or other salts increases consumption and
excretion of water greatly.
2. Environmental Factor: heat stress i.e the higher the heat the higher the water intake and vice versa