Planing is very important in any business; failure to plan is planning to fail. Planning involves asking questions like what to do, when and how to do it in order to achieve the desired goals?
Benefit of good Planning:
- It saves time.
- It saves energy.
- It saves cost.
- It allows for proper management.
- It allows for proper use of resources.
Factors to consider during Planning:
Individual aim or goal: Every farmer has own goal. Goals may be different from individual to individual. The goal for establishing pig farm could be for money making, humanitarian purpose, hobby, family consumption or for research purpose. The aim of setting up the farm must be clearly spelt out this aim will affect mode of operation and scale of production.
Available Resources: Consideration should be given to the available capital land and human resources.
Location: Where to locate the pig farm in another important factor to take into consideration. In order to avoid conflict, pig farm should not be cited where there are lots of moslems. Busy environment should also be avoided.
Market: Pig farm should be cited where there is market potential for the products. the Farm should not be cited where there is taboo against the eating of pork. A lot of profit would be made if the farm is cited where is high demand of pork etc. Survey of potential buyers of the product should also be carried out when planning for pig business.
Scale of Production: The scale of production could be either small, medium or large. the scale of production depends on availability of resources, interest and goal of the farmer. It is advisable to start on small-scale before going into large-scale production in establishing pig farm or all other Agriculture farm animal product. The reason why I said so is because starting on small-scale will reduce risk and all the technical know-how would have been know.
Construction: Farmer should consider the type of material to be use for the housing construction. Note that there are space sizes required for the pigs which I will be saying later. Adulterated or sub-standard material should be avoided.
Professionals: Intending pig farmer should seek professionals advice like us in the business. He should seek advice to get good foundation stock, management practice, the profitability and marking of the product.
Environmental Factor: Environmental factors such as relative humidity, temperature, sun-shine, etc. affect pigs. Also noisy area should be avoided when citing a pig farm.
Wages and Salary: How much to pay the employees should also be put into consideration and appropriate of schedule of work should be drawn for staff(s).
Source of water: Pig farm should be cited where there is good source of water supply.
System Of Production in Pig Farming
There are three (3) system of pig production depending on the interest of the farmer, available resources and land .
The 3 Method are:
- Extensive system
- Semi-Intensive system
- Intensive system
Extensive System: It is otherwise called free range system. where by Pigs move from one place to another scavenging for food by them self. They roam around the house and the surroundings. Local breeds are commonly reared in this system.
- It is less expensive because little amount of money is spent feeding and housing them.
- Little or no money is spent on their medication.
- Poor record keeping.
- The pig found in this type of system are prone to diseases.
- They are also prone to predators.
- The system predisposes to conflict among members of the people living around the area or community.
- The pigs are always dirty.
- It constitutes nuisance to the environment.
- The pigs can be easily stolen.
In this type of system, the pigs are confined; feed and shelter is provided for the pigs also.
- It allows for large-scale production.
- Disease management is simple.
- Performance of pigs can be easily monitored.
- It allows for good record keeping.
- Pigs are well protected against predators.
- Mortality rate is low.
- Small space is required compared to extensive system.
- The droppings can be well managed to reduce environmental pollution.
It is capital intensive, (that is very expensive to start up) especially at the initial stage.
It is ‘mid-way’ between intensive and extensive system of pig production. It is good for small-scale production because less capital is required compared to the intensive system of production. Shelters are provided for the animals and they can confined in a place. Agricultural wastes, house-hold wastes, kitchen wastes or forages are also given to the pigs at less once or twice daily.
There are different ways of constructing pig houses, depending on the stages of production of pig, the available resources, the preference of the farmer and location.
Factors To Be Cosidered When Designing House For Pig.
Flooring: The house must be properly floored. Cemment and sand must be properly mixed as recommended by civil engineer or experienced professional in the construction industry. If the house is not well concreted pig can dig the floor and do damage to the floor. Experienced ‘bricklayer’ must be used for the flooring. The floor should be freely drained.
Walls and Partitions: wall ans pertitions must be strong. The height should be around 1.5 metre from the ground level to prevent pig from jumping the well.
Roofs: The roof shouldbe water tight and must have good insulation. Aluminium roofing sheet should be avoided because of the heat conduction. Asbestors roofing sheet is more better and preferable. there should be open space of about 2 metres between the wall and the roof for proper ventilation.
Doors: The doors should be built of strong iron of about 1.5 metre hight.
Types of Piggry Housing
- Farrowing House
- Breeding house
- Grower/fatteners house
- Farrowing House: This is the housing prepared for the sow to farrow and keep the kiglets before they are weaned., The floor of the house must be easy to wash and well drained. the dimension of the Pen varies from one farm to another. It could be 3 by 3 by 1.5m. Provision for feeding, water trough and wallowing space should be made available.
- Breeding House: This is the house for breeding stock, i.e. matured boar and gilt or sow. the house should have hard floor. The floor should have gentle gradients to the sides and should be easily washable.
- Grower or fatteners House: The house is suppose to be larger tghen that of the breeding house because of the large number of the animals. the house is for the growers for the farttening purposes before they are bred or slaughtered.