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Pig Feeds And Feeding Formulation

Expansion of pig industry depends to a large extent on the availability of good quality pig feeds in sufficient quantity and at affordable price. Feed accounts for 60% to 70% of the total cost of production. Pigs is a mongastric animal.

Quality of a good Pig Food:

  1. Pig food must be fresh and not stale.
  2. It must be well process and packaged.
  3. The digestibility of the feed must be high.
  4. The feed must support optimum growth and development of pig.
  5. The feed must be palatable.
  6. The ingredients for the feed must be available at all time.
  7. The feed must be affordable.
  8. The feed must be balanced in Nutrients.
  9. It must be attractive and palatable to the pig
  10. It must not be mouldy.

What makes up the pig’s feed:

  1. Carbohydrates.
  2. Protein.
  3. Fat and Oil.
  4. Minerals.
  5. Vitamins.
  6. Water.

Some Feed ingredients for formulation of ration for pig:

Maize: The grain forms major constituents of the feed. It is a good source of energy. The metabolizable energy is about 3400 Kcal/kg. It is widely cultivated in all parts of Africa in particular. The protein content is about 10%. Yellow maize contains carotene. Maize must be properly dried before it can be used for formulation.

Sorghum: It is commonly grown in the Northern part of Nigeria. The energy level is about 2500 Kcal/kgh. If maize is scarce and expensive, sorghum could be used as substitute.

Maize offal: It contains about 2500 Kcal ME/kg. It is complimentary source of energy. The fibre level is higher than that of maize.

Wheat offal: It is another complimentary source of energy. It is a by-product of wheat after milling. The energy value is low compared to maize. the metabolizable energy is about 1800 Kcal ME/kg.

Cassava: Cassava is a good source of energy but with low protein. The by-product include: cassava peel, cassava flour, cassava chaff and sievate. One of the major limitation in using cassava is the presence of  anti-nutritional factor, hydocyanic acid (HCN). Cassava must be properly dried before incorporation with other feed ingredient.

Sweet potato: It is a good source of energy. Boiled sweet potato culd be given to pig directly. When formulating diet for pig, dry sweet potato could be used to replace maize to a large extent.

Yams: There are various types of yam in Africa. They are grown primarily for human consumption but could also be used to feed pig. Again yam tuber or peel could be sun-dried and incorporated with other feed ingredients during feed formulation.

Brewer dry grains: It is a by-product of brewery industries. The energy level is low, of about 18% crude protein. It contains high fibre content of about 20%. Brewer dry grain must be properly dried before incorporating with other feed ingredient. It could be used as complimentary source of energy in pig diet.

Palm kernel cake: It forms of the major ingredients in formulating pig’s ration due to low cost compared to other feed ingredients. It contains protein content of about 18% crude protein but the fibre is high, of about 12%. The energy value is about 2000 Kcal ME/kg. It is a by-product during extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernel.

Fish Meal: It is very good source of animal protein. It is rich in both essential and non-essential amino-acid. Fish meal used in pig nutrition could be imported or local. The protein content is between 60 and 72% crude protein.

Groundnut cake: It is a good source of plant protein. The protein content is about 45% crude protein. The energy content ia about 2600 Kcal ME/kg. Ground cake must be well dried and stored to avoid mouldiness.

Soybean Meal: It is another good source of plant protein. The protein content is around 45% crude protein. Soybean meal could be used to replace groundnut cake but the methionine and lysine content of the former are higher then that of the latter.

Bone Meal: It is a good source of calcium and phosphorus which is responsible for bone and skeleton. The calcium content of bone is around 37% and phosphorus content is about 17%.

Oyster Shell: It is a good source of calcium. The price of oyster hell is lower then that of bone meal. the calcium conent is about 35% and contains no phosporus.

REQUIREMENTS FOR DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES OF PIG:

Protein Requirements

Stages of Production % Protein Requirement
1.)   Piglets2.)  Growers

3.)  Breeders

4.)    Lactating

1814-16

16-18

14-16

 

Energy Requirement

Stages of Production Energy Requirements
1.)  Piglet2.)  Growers

3.)  Breeders

4.)  Lactating

2400 – 26002400 – 2500

2400 – 2500

2400 – 2600

 

Fat Requirement

Stages of Production Fat Requirement (%)
1.)  Piglets2.)  Growers

3.)  Breeders

4.)    Lactating

3.03.0

3.0 – 4.0

3.0 – 4.0

 

Fibre Requirement

Stages of Production Crude Fibre Requirement (%)
1.)  Piglets2.)  Growers

3.)  Breeders

4.)    Lactating

3.0 – 4.04.5 – 5.0

3.0 – 4.0

3.0 – 4.0

 

 Calcium and Phosphorus Requirement

Stages of Production Calcium Requirement (%) Phosphorus Requirement (%)
1.)  Piglets2.)  Growers

3.)  Breeders

4.)  Lactating

0.450.4 – 0.5

0.4 – 0.6

0.4 – 0.6

0.30.45

0.4 – 0.5

0.3 – 0.5

 

GROSS COMPOSITION CREEP PIG FEED

INGREDIENTS /1000KG
MAIZEBREWERS DRY GRAINS

GROUNGNUT CAKE

SOYA MEAL

65% FISH MEAL

METHIONINE

BONE MEAL

SALT

VITAMIN/MINERAL PREMIX

320150

153

90

10

1

31

2.5

2.5

TOTAL 1000

 GROSS COMPOSITION OF WEANED PIG MASH

INDREDIENTS /1000KG
MAIZECASSAVA

BREWERS DRY GRAINS

GROUNGNUT CAKE

PALM KERNEL CAKE

WHEAT OFFAL

SOYA MEAL

METHIONINE

BONE MEAL

SALT

VITAMIN/MINERAL PREMIX

250100

150

80

62

275

50

1

28

2.5

2.5

TOTAL 1000

 

GROSS COMPOSITION OF FATTENER PIG MASH

INGREDIENTS /1000KG
MAIZECASSAVA

BREWERS DRY GRAINS

GROUNGNUT CAKE

PALM KERNEL CAKE

WHEAT OFFAL

SOYA MEAL

MAIZE BRAN

BONE MEAL

OYSTER SHELL

SALT

VITAMIN/MINERAL PREMIX

220100

130

30

150

275

20

50

16

4

2.5

2.5

TOTAL 1000

GROSS COMPOSITION OF BREEDER PIG MASH

INGREDIENTS /1000KG
MAIZECASSAVA

BREWERS DRY GRAINS

GROUNGNUT CAKE

PALM KERNEL CAKE

WHEAT OFFAL

SOYA MEAL

MAIZE BRAN

BONE MEAL

SALT

VITAMIN/MINERAL PREMIX

200100

150

30

120

300

50

15

30

2.5

2.5

TOTAL 1000

Note that the above pig feed formulation should not been seen as a standard. A lot of factors need to be considered during pig feeds formulation, i.e. Availability and cost of feed ingredients, health status and environmental  factors, etc. Please consult an Animal nutritionist or pig specialist for more details.

 

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35 Comments

  1. Evaristo Chisala C.S

    Very educative material for me as a small scale pig farmer.

    Reply
  2. jude

    Please i will like to know how important the use of lysine is because you did not mention it in your weaned pig mash.Thanks

    Reply
  3. mupila zacharia

    I need information on proportion of each meal

    Reply
  4. Adedotun

    Very precise and educative

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      Thanks

      Reply
  5. Olutayo

    (1) Pls, what is difference between maize bran and rice bran? (2) is it menthionine and premix that use for birds are also use for pig?

    Reply
  6. Willy Oparah

    I found these resources very helpful in my publication. How do I acknowledge you as my source in the publication.

    Reply
  7. Akande niyi

    What is d require wgt gain from weaning stage to maturity.thks

    Reply
  8. Joseph Pablo Bahanz

    The formula is so amazing. Very educative to pig farmers

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      thanks

      Reply
  9. Joseph Pablo Bahanza

    I am planning to keep a lot of PIGS in two coming years.

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      that is very good

      Reply
  10. Rex

    pls help me with the percentage ratio of each feed

    Reply
  11. Kasumba Edward. mpigi uganda.

    It’s educative to me as a biginer.

    Reply
  12. Nicholas

    Thanks very much.

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      You are most welcome Nicholas

      Reply
  13. calosjames

    i want to tell you thanks and i am a student in researchers emil tiredly when i finish i will start a piglet farm soon thanks

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      You are most welcome. I wish u all the best

      Reply
  14. meg

    Thanks so much, Mr Chuks, pls, Is blood meal not useful in feed composition?

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      Thanks for the complement. While to answer your question:

      Blood meal is good, but while most people dont add it is cos its very expensive, however, if you most add it also, there are recommended amount to addd

      Reply
  15. Beth wairimu kabutha

    Is it important to give my pigs lysine? In uganda where can i get all this material to mix my own pig feed?

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      Giving your Pig lysine is really not but has a particular amount or quantity for every amount of feed formulated.

      Reply
  16. RICHARD KARUGA

    VERY EDUCATIVE

    Reply
    • RICHARD KARUGA

      very educative and look at wide goals ahead

      Reply
  17. Tosin Jerry

    I didn’t see full fat Soya in your list sir, is it not good for pigs.

    Reply
  18. Bishop Desmond

    Brewer dried grains is very scare in my location, Pls what is the alternative I can use?

    Reply
  19. Ibitoye Mike

    This very good for me. Thanks for this.

    Reply
  20. Ayegboka Bamikole

    God bless you sir, very educative. but can you please check the calculation on /1000kg is like not tally. eg ingredient / 1000kg on MAIZECASSAVA 250100 when the cumulative is added is not upto 1000kg. can you please educate me how you arrived at that; e.g see below.
    GROSS COMPOSITION OF WEANED PIG MASH

    INDREDIENTS /1000KG
    MAIZECASSAVA
    BREWERS DRY GRAINS

    GROUNGNUT CAKE

    PALM KERNEL CAKE

    WHEAT OFFAL

    SOYA MEAL

    METHIONINE

    BONE MEAL

    SALT

    VITAMIN/MINERAL PREMIX

    250100
    150

    80

    62

    275

    50

    1

    28

    2.5

    2.5

    TOTAL 1000

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      Can you arrange them well so that I can understand better and let you know if you will make any adjustment.

      Reply
  21. Ugande

    This piece is timely for me. I appreciate you. Thanks. My question is when is the right time for weaning?

    Reply
  22. Faith

    Pls am a beginner I only have I boar and 2 breeder at winner size where am getting the feeds is very far from my place please I beg of you kindly put me thro I I can be making the feeds and the quanty of each ingredients. Thanks

    Reply
  23. Achilles Bulwanyi

    thanks so much for such good information

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      You’re most welcome

      Reply
  24. Sotola Olawale

    Kudos to you for this information, thanks alot.

    Reply
    • Mr Chukwuemeka N.

      Thanks, Sotola

      Reply

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